National Aeronautics and Space Administration have newly discovered a small but evolving dent in the earth’s magnetic field. The place of this dent is over South America and the South Atlantic Ocean. The spot called Southe Atlantic Anomaly. Although the South Atlantic anomaly originated from a process within the Earth, its effects extend beyond the Earth’s surface. This region could be dangerous for low-Earth satellites. If a satellite is hit by an energy-proton, it can be short-circuited and cause a single event disturbance or an event called SEU. This can cause temporary satellite disruption or permanent damage.
The changing South Atlantic anomaly provides researchers with new opportunities to understand the Earth’s element and how it affects other parts of the Earth’s system. To keep tabs on future challenges, space agencies like the European Space Agency and NASA keep tabs on magnetic field vulnerabilities.
Key Points :
Earth’s magnetic field acts as a protective shield against the sun when it repels charged particles and traps them.
What is the main problem?
The South Atlantic anomaly allows charged particles to sink closer to the Earth’s surface than normal. It exits with the help of an onboard computer. It is able to interfere with data collection from satellites. This is important to know about the magnetic tooth and find a solution to it.
South Atlantic anomaly:
The South Atlantic anomaly arises due to two characteristics of the Earth’s core. They consist of the tilt of the magnetic axis and the flow of molten metals within the outer core.
Earth is a magnet. Its polarity is the North and South poles. Invisible magnetic field lines surround the planet between the poles. However, unlike bar magnets, the core magnetic fields, which are magnetic lines inside the earth (magnets) do not align with the outer lines. This is because this region originates from the outer core of the Earth. The churning metal acts as a large-scale generator called geodynamo. The dynamo creates electric currents that produce magnetic fields. This magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field causing the anomaly.
Now the core speed is also changing due to geomagnetic conditions within the core and also at the boundary. It is also fluctuating magnetic fields in space and time.